Sorghum smut

The high incidence of smut in the sorghum producing areas in China is generally prevalent, and the incidence is heavier in North China and Northeast China. First, the symptoms and occurrence of sorghum and scattered smut in the seedling stage symptoms are not very obvious, but the plant is slightly short, slightly darker in color and earlier in earing. After heading, the cobs and branches were intact, and the protection of the cultivar was significantly increased. The whole panicles became oblong bacilli and the outer layer of white film was covered with a large amount of black powder. After the mash mat matures, the film breaks and the black powder spreads out, exposing a black residue and protecting the worm. Some seeds become bacillary dysentery, and the rest are not robust. The disease is poisonous to the soil and seeds, but the seeds are mainly poisonous. The germs can survive in the outdoors for a year and reduce their pathogenicity after winter in the soil. After sowing, the germs invade the sorghum seedlings from wounds, epidermis and larvae, and spread to the sorghum growing point. When the ear is heading, the germs enter the ear, destroying the ovary and forming bacilli. The occurrence of this disease is related to the resistance of varieties, the number of bacteria in soil and seeds, and the speed of seedling emergence. Second, the prevention and treatment methods Gaosuan powder smut prevention and control similar to the head smut. 1. Use resistant varieties. Farm varieties are generally not disease resistant. The major disease-resistant or immunized species are imported foreign varieties, such as Fannong 1, Meihong, Whitening, Hemp, Hengalli, and Hengali. 2. Timely sowing and improving the quality of sowing. Early sowing, soil drought, poor soil preparation and overburdening will prolong the emergence time, increase the chance of infection, and make the disease worse. Therefore, generally should be sowing as soon as possible to ensure maturity, appropriate sowing before sowing, fine soil preparation, suitable depth of soil cover, to ensure early emergence of seedlings, strong seedlings, shorten the germination time, reduce disease occurrence. 3. Due to the proper rotation, pathogens can only survive for one year in the soil. Therefore, proper rotation in the ward can effectively reduce the degree of harm. 4. Remove diseased plants and reduce the source of bacteria the following year. 5. Seed treatment is mainly drug seed dressing to eliminate germs on the seeds and in the rhizosphere soil around the seeds. (1) 50% rust resilience powder 350 grams seed dressing 50 kg, or 16% rust rust emulsifiable oil (method with sorghum smut). (2) 50 kg of 50% and 70% pentachloronitrobenzene powder in a dressing of 300 grams. (3) 50 kg of Ketodran WP 350 kg seed dressing 50 kg. (4) 50 kg carbendazim WP 350 kg seed dressing 50 kg. In addition, the use of antibiotics 769, 775, 3013 seed dressing is also good preventive effect.

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