Detoxification method for five different types of cakes

1. Soybean cake 粕 Soybean cake contains harmful substances such as antitrypsin, urease, hemagglutinin, saponin, goitre induced factor and anticoagulant factor. However, most of these substances are not heat-resistant. Generally, these substances are removed by heat treatment at 100°C-110°C for 3 to 5 minutes before feeding. Note that the heating time should not be too long, the temperature can not be too high, otherwise it will reduce the feed value of the protein. 2, flaxseed cake flaxseed cake contains cyanogenic glycosides, when the cyanogen into the body, will be hydrolyzed in the role of lipolytic enzymes to produce hydrocyanic acid and cause livestock poisoning. Flaxseed cakes should be attenuated when used as feed. Commonly used methods are: the flaxseed cake crushed, add 4 to 5 times warm water, soak 8 to 12 hours, then drain the water, and then add the appropriate amount of water to boil for 1 hour, while stirring constantly open the lid, while adding vinegar In order to make hydrogen cyanide volatilize as much as possible. 3, rapeseed cake rapeseed cake contains glucosinolates, can be hydrolyzed into toxic substances under the catalytic effect of mustard enzyme. The detoxification method of rapeseed cake is as follows: 1 The rapeseed cake is crushed, then boiled or steamed, and kept at a temperature of 100°C to 110°C for 1 hour to inactivate the mustard enzyme. When using this method, it should be noted that the heating time should not be too long to prevent the reduction of the feed value of the protein; and the feed amount should be strictly controlled because the glucosinolate is still present in the rapeseed cake and it may be affected by other sources of mustard enzymes and intestinal tracts. Decomposition of enzymes produced by microorganisms in the feed or feed continues to produce toxic components. 2 Since glucosinolates are water-soluble, they can be replaced with cold or warm water at about 40°C for 2 to 4 days, changing the water once a day. This will remove some glucosides. However, this method has a large loss of nutrients. 3 For every 100 pieces of rapeseed cake, use 4.75 parts of strong ammonia, or 3.5 parts of soda ash, dilute with water, spray evenly into the cake, cover for 3 to 5 hours, then steam in the steamer for 40-50 minutes; It can also be dried in the sun or fried in storage for use. 4 Select a place that is sunny, dry, and where the ground temperature is high, dig a pit 0.8 meters wide, 0.7 to 1 meter deep, and the length determined by the number of rapeseed cakes. The rapeseed cake is crushed and water is added. 1 kg of cake is added with 1 kg of water and snow, soaked into the pit after being soaked in foam, and the top and bottom are each covered with a layer of grass. The top cover soil is more than 20 cm and the feed can be taken out after 2 months. 5 Feed the rapeseed cake with green feed at the same time as silage; dry feed can also be done first and no water should be provided after feeding. Although detoxification treatment is also strictly controlled, the amount of rapeseed cake fed should not exceed 10% of the diet. 4, cottonseed cake cottonseed cake contains free gossypol, easy to cause poisoning in livestock and poultry. The commonly used detoxification methods of cottonseed cake are as follows: 1 Take appropriate amount of grass ash or quicklime in 100 kg of clear water and stir it well. After precipitation, soak the cottonseed cake in the supernatant overnight. The proportion of cake liquid is 2:1. After soaking for 24 hours, use clean water filtrate. 4 times, you can feed. 2 Add 1.2 to 1.5 kg of ferrous sulfate per kilogram of soil pressed cotton seed cake. Add only 0.15 to 0.2 kg of machine squeezing mash. Soak for 4 to 6 hours with appropriate amount of fresh water. Feeding. 3 Use 2% ammonium bicarbonate or 1% urea solution evenly sprayed on the cottonseed cake flour and mix well. When the cake powder has a moisture content of 15%, it is appropriate, and then sealed with a plastic film for 24 hours, you can feed use. 4 Use 15% soda solution 24 kg to spray 100 kg of cotton seed cake, fully mix and suffocate with plastic film for 5 hours, then steam for 50 minutes to dry; also use 1 % sodium hydroxide solution to soak 3~ After 4 hours, the solution was drained, rinsed with water and dried. Cook for 3 to 5 minutes at 110°C. 5, peanut cake peanut cake itself is not toxins, but improper storage is susceptible to aflatoxin and cause poisoning in livestock and poultry. If the peanut cake is infected with Aspergillus flavus, it must be detoxified prior to feeding the livestock and poultry. The commonly used detoxification methods are: 1 The contaminated peanut cake is crushed and placed in a cylinder, and 5-8 times more water is added. Stir, stand, wait for its precipitation, and then change the water several times until the soaked water is colorless. This method only applies to mildly milded feeds. For the sake of safety, the detoxified feed should still be used in conjunction with other feeds, and the amount of feed should also be limited. 2 Soak and rinse the infected peanut cake with a saturated aqueous lime solution for 3 consecutive times and rinse it repeatedly with clean water. 3 When the infected peanut cake is baked at 150°C for 30 minutes or exposed to moldy peanuts with sunlight for 14 hours, 80% to 90% of aflatoxin can be removed. 4 Seal the moldy peanut cake in a smoked can or plastic film bag so that the moisture content is over 18%. Fumigation with ammonia for 10 hours will reduce the content of aflatoxin by 90% to 95%. 5 Add 5% quicklime to mildewed peanut cake, and the detoxification rate can reach 90% to 99%.

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