Mushroom cultivation technology

One, mushroom house setting

1, mushroom house construction

To build a mushroom house, we should choose a place with high terrain, convenient drainage, and a stacking site near the house. Bamboo-wood structure of mushroom sheds, scaffolding should be solid, shed weekly wall and roof should be covered with a thick film, and cover straw and shade nets. The size of the shed is determined by the scale of cultivation, and it is generally preferable to cultivate 110-330 m2 of mushrooms per shed.

2, bed frame arrangement

The mushroom bed is arranged vertically with the mushroom house. Do not rely on walls around the mushroom bed, leaving a 0.6-meter-wide aisle. If the mushroom house is narrower than 3 meters, you can leave only one middle aisle. Aisle between the bed frame 0.6 meters, the bed frame can take 4 to 5 layers, each layer 0.6 meters from the mushroom, the bottom 15 to 30 cm above the ground, the top floor from the roof 1.3 to 1.5 meters, the length of the mushroom room may be. The bedsteads are usually constructed of bamboo and wood, with a pair of front and rear windows on both sides of the aisle; the upper window is about 15cm from the shed, and the lower window is about 10cm from the ground. The size of the window is 4045 cm, and a pull-out cylinder is installed at the center of every 2 to 3 shelves. The height of the cylinder is 1.3 to 1.5 meters and the top is equipped with a wind cap.

Second, the cultivation of materials, fermentation, fermentation

1, the source of culture materials. Mainly manure, straw, wheat straw, cake fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, plaster, lime and so on.

2. The carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) of the culture material. In the process of composting, if the nitrogen content is too low, the microbial activity will be weakened, the feed temperature is not high, the fermentation is not sufficient, and the seedlings are easily infected. If the nitrogen is too high, the content of ammonia, amine and amide in the material after fermentation will be too high, and the growth of mushroom seedlings will be inhibited. The C/N before fermentation in the production was 30 to 33:1, and the C/N after fermentation was 17:1.

3, culture formula (to 110m2 cultivation area scale):

(1) 1,000 kg of dried cow dung, 1,000 kg of barley grass, 250 kg of cabbage, 25 kg of superphosphate, 40 kg of gypsum powder, 50 kg of lime, and 32:1 C/N.

(2) 1500 kg of dried cow dung, 1,000 kg of rice straw and wheat straw, 45 kg of cake, 40 kg of gypsum powder, 40 kg of lime, and 2943:1 C/N.

In the absence of manure, excrement-free cultivation can also be carried out.

Most of the stockpiles in the stack are 6:4, 5:5, and 4:6.

4, composting, fermentation

(1) Composting time: 20 to 25 days before sowing.

(2) Build a heap and ferment: Before building a heap, clean the site. The pile width is generally 2.1 meters, the stack height is 1.5 meters, and the material pile length is not limited. First spread a layer of rice (grass) grass; thickness of about 0.3 meters, the four sides neat, do not water, and then spread on top of a thin layer of cow dung to cover the lack of straw is better, and then spread a layer of straw above the cow dung And so on, about 10 to 12 floors. The following three layers do not water, from the fourth floor to the upper shop, the more watering, the cake and urea layer by layer when building a pile. After being piled up, the four sides should be neat and vertical, and the top should be piled into a turtle shape. After stacking, cover with grass or agricultural film to prevent sun and rain. In addition, after the pile is built, water is discharged at the bottom of the material.

1 Conventional fermentation (one-time fermentation) After the fermentation of the compost pile, it must be frequently turned to regulate the moisture content of the stored material, to emit harmful gases, to promote the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, and to accelerate the decomposition and conversion of the nutrients of the culture materials. Kill miscellaneous and some pests. For the first time, the piles are piled on the construction site for 5 to 6 days. The main purpose is to fully replace the upper and lower, inner and outer materials, so that the fermentation is uniform or evenly heated. Layer watering when turning, so that the water within the material to achieve a pinch of water drops for the degree. The second time, 4 to 5 days after the first turnover, was carried out when the heap temperature reached around 75°C and began to decline. The third time was carried out 4 days after the second turning. At this time, the moisture content in the material should be about 70%. The addition of gypsum powder can make the material PH value 7.5-8. The fourth time after the third time 3 to 4 days, the fifth time after the fourth time in 3 days after turning 5 times, 2 to 3 angels can enter the mushroom room. Throughout the process, the turnaround interval is generally 6, 5, 4, and 3 days.

The standards for fermented piles are dark brown, odorless, and ammonia-free. The heat is moderate, the material is uniform, and there is a certain degree of tightness and aroma.

2 Secondary fermentation, this method is an effective technology popularized and applied in the past ten years. The whole process is divided into outdoor pre-fermentation and indoor post-fermentation.

Outdoor pre-fermentation: The method is the same as conventional fermentation, except that the heap period is about 10 days out of the conventional fermentation, turning 3 times. When the material temperature reaches 70-75°C, the room is fermented indoors.

After the indoor fermentation: including heating, insulation, cooling three stages. Before entering the house, the culture materials should be sprayed with 0.4% of dichlorvos on the surface of the material pile, sprayed with 0.4% of formaldehyde, and then covered with plastic film, and stuffed with stuff for 3 to 5 hours before entering the house.

a. During the warm-up phase, the pre-fermented culture materials are poured into the house while they are hot, stacked on the upper and middle bed frames, and the bottom layer is not placed. Immediately close the doors and windows, allow the temperature to warm up to above 45 °C, and then increase the temperature. Heating can be used in coal stoves, electric stoves, or outdoor open flame heating. Warming the mushroom room temperature to 62 °C, maintain 4 to 6 hours.

b. Insulation phase, which is the main stage of post-fermentation. The temperature of the material is reduced to 52°C and maintained for 3 to 4 days.

c. In the cooling phase, when the material temperature drops to about 45 to 50°C, it is maintained for 12 hours. When the temperature drops below 45°C, the temperature of the material is rapidly lowered by opening the door and the fermentation is completed.

Third, flip, sowing

1. Reversal. After the culture materials enter the house to complete the fermentation, the windows are opened for ventilation, and then the doubling is performed. The layer of loose material is mixed so that the mixture of the feces is uniform, the material layer is elastic and the impurities are removed, the fecal matter is removed, the bed surface is leveled, and the skin is slightly tightened, and then the ground is cleaned to prepare for sowing.

2, sowing. When the feed temperature drops to about 28°C, it can be sown. Before sowing, check whether there is ammonia in the material and whether the moisture content of the material is qualified (65-68%). If there is ammonia gas, it is necessary to refill it once and emit ammonia gas. If the moisture content of the material is insufficient, it can be adjusted with lime water; if it is too wet, it can increase ventilation. Seeding methods are sowing, drilling, broadcasting, mixed broadcasting. The seeding rate differs depending on the seed type and seed culture.

IV. Management after sowing

Under normal circumstances, fluffy mushroom filaments can sprout in 1 to 2 days after sowing, and they begin to “eat” in 3 days. Three days after sowing, with the growth of the mushroom, the ventilation of the mushroom house should be increased. 7 to 10 days after sowing, mushroom silk generally full of material surface. After mushroom silk eats, the growth is not fast, it may be caused by wet, ammonia, etc., and it can be “poked” from the back of the bed frame. Increase the air permeability of the material layer and eliminate harmful gases. You can also insert wolfberry seeds into the material next to the mushroom species to loosen the material and lower the temperature. Generally about 20 days in the end, you can cover soil.

Fifth, cover soil

Covering soil is an important means to transform the growth from monofilament to fruit body in mushroom cultivation. The main method currently being implemented is "River Loach One-time Covering Earth." The specific approach is to prepare a porridge river mud with a moisture content of 45% per 100 square meters, 700 to 750 kilograms, 75 kilograms, to be fresh, exposed to sunlight for 2 days before use, and soaked in lime with a pH of 10 for 24 hours. Remove and kill 0.5% dichlorvos. Then mix the pestle and mud in a ratio of 1:10 so that the pH is 7.5. The thickness of the cover soil is 2 cm, and the upper surface is shaved by hand to make the thickness uniform. After covering the soil, drill holes in the material surface and properly ventilate.

Sixth, after the cover management

After covering the soil, the front bed is generally not water transfer, in order to moisturize hanging mushroom wire (humidity 75%). If it is lower than the required humidity, it can be lightly sprayed and humidified.

(1) Water transfer and ventilation. The principle of water transfer is to wet first and then dry. The total volume of water transferred is 10 kg/m2. The load is transferred in three days. Two light and medium water spray methods are adopted. When each water is sprayed, the doors and windows should be opened for ventilation.

(2) sprinkling mushroom water. When the mushrooms are generally grown to the earth seam, they are ventilated for 3 days to suppress the growth of the mushroom filaments. The filamentous mushroom filaments are evenly connected to the filamentous mushroom filaments and laid in the fine soil. The filamentous filaments begin to kink into the primordium. , you can spray mushroom water. After spraying the mushroom water, it was ventilated for 2 days, and then the ventilation was reduced to promote the mushroom silk to grow upward (shallow-dried mushroom), so as to prepare for continuous mushrooming.

(3) Spray mushroom water. When the mushroom fruit body grows to the size of mung bean, the growth speeds up and requires a lot of water, so it is necessary to spray “water with mushrooms”. The amount of mushroom water and mushroom water is about the same, every 25 kilograms / m2, 5 to 6 times the spray, each water spray depending on the number of sub-substances may be determined, mushrooms are more than spray, mushrooms less then spray. The water spray time is 4 to 6 days after spraying the mushroom water. After spraying, gradually reduce the ventilation of the mushroom house, increase the humidity of the mushroom house, and maintain the relative humidity of the air by about 90%.

Seven, autumn mushroom management

Mushrooms generally take about 40 days from sowing to picking. My county had a mushroom in late September and ended in late December. Autumn mushrooms can generally take 5 to 6 batches. The main measures for autumn mushroom management are water spray, ventilation and heat preservation.

1, water management

Do water to see mushrooms, mushrooms are more than spray, pre-spray, spray less late. Mushrooms should be sprayed early in the morning and night when the temperature is low.

2, ventilation and temperature and humidity control

During the mushroom growth and development, it is necessary to absorb oxygen and discharge CO2. In addition, the microorganisms in the culture materials are decomposed and poorly ventilated, and the air in the mushroom house is kept fresh. During the period when the fruit body gradually grows to harvest, the mushroom house humidity must be increased. The relative humidity of the fruiting period should reach 90%.

3, clean the bed

After each batch of mushrooms is harvested, it is necessary to clear the bed in time. Use wolfberry to remove the mushroom root and dead mushroom, then make up the fine soil, spray water, and clean the mushroom house.

4, top dressing

When the harvest of the third batch of autumn oysters is over, the nutrients in the cultivating material have been consumed a lot, and the phenomenon of small mushroom body and less fruiting mushroom is often observed. Therefore, poultry manure, animal urine, urea, soymilk, bean sprouts juice, malt, or No. 1, No. 2 sorghum should be appropriately followed.

Eight, winter management

Winter cold, mushroom room temperature is about 5 °C, not suitable for mushroom fruit body development. The management content during this period is thermal insulation and ventilation. Spray water once every 7 to 8 days. The water content is about 15% (the soil surface is not white). The indoor temperature is maintained at 3 to 4°C. Normal weather and windows are opened every day for 2 to 3 hours. By mid-March, when the temperature is stable above 10°C, water and nutrients can be adjusted. When the temperature reaches 15 to 25°C, it is the best time for spring mushrooming.

9. Harvesting

Mushroom cover straight through 2 ~ 4cm, mushroom ring is not broken, mushroom umbrella did not open the harvest, the mushroom required no mud, no insects, no mechanical injury, the peak period to diligence (2 to 3 times a day). To achieve "three rounds" (round picking, cutting, putting), "three sides" (edge ​​mining, side cut root, edge classification), "three fast" (fast, fast, fast), "a reduction" (Reduce the number of shipments).

X. Pests and Diseases and Their Control

The common pests and diseases of mushrooms include: white rot, soft rot, damping-off, pseudo-mosquito, flies, worms, worms, and rats. Prevention methods are mainly to do a good job mushroom house, culture material disinfection, post-fermentation, pay attention to mushroom house hygiene, due to different diseases and insect pests, appropriate medication.

The appearance is tan, and the cork is red-brown at the flaking; there are intermittent stripes on the branches, nodules are enlarged, and the shape is like a bead. Most of the hard and delicate roots and fibrous roots are born, and some surfaces are smooth and smooth, such as stalks. It is commonly known as "crossing the river branches" or "crossing bridges"; there are brown scales on the upper part, and there are residual stems or petioles that have not been cleaned at the top. The quality is firm and hard, the section is irregular, the skin is dark brown, the wood is golden, the rays are cracked, the central pith is red and yellow, and occasionally hollow. Odorless, very bitter taste, chewing saliva can be dyed red and yellow. It is better to use fat, beaded, solid, red-yellow, no residual stems and fibrous roots.

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