Apple Tree Shaping

First, apple pruning techniques of young trees: from the time of planting seedlings to the results of the early stage of the saplings, apple saplings, tree vigor, new shoots grow large, easy to strong. The main task of pruning is to retain and cultivate the backbone branches, arrange the tree skeleton to rapidly expand the canopy, and to make full use of the auxiliary branches to ease the tree vigor and promote its early results and early high yield. Therefore, the amount of pruning should be small, and the principle of pruning due to tree pruning, light plastic cutting, and sparse pruning should be implemented.
1. Develop good stems and quickly expand the canopy: Only the tree grows quickly to achieve early results and early high yields. The premise of a fast growing tree is planting seedlings. After the drying, the buds are promoted and the sprouts are promoted. Within 1 to 2 years, enough shoots are promoted as soon as possible to meet the production requirements. According to the requirements of plastic surgery, select the backbone (main and side) branches to be selected. The main branches should be kept as long as possible. Select the remaining buds, pay attention to the orientation of the third bud, strictly control the competition branches, and generally should be sparse for the competition branches. except. If it is to be used, it should carry out open angles and ring-opening to promote its early results in order to clarify the relationship between the master and the slave. When the canopy basically meets the required size, the bones and stem extensions are not allowed to be put down slowly, and multiple middle and short branches are promoted, and the knots and trees are growing. Care must be taken to prevent the master from being divided, and the auxiliary branches to give way to the backbone branches. This can be achieved by pruning in the summer and promoting its quick results.
2. Lightly cut and long-distance release, make full use of auxiliary support: In addition to the short-cut promotion of 1-2-year-old saplings, they should be lightly cut, less sparse, and many branches left. This is the basis for promoting branching, slowing down, promoting flower, early fruiting, and early morning harvest. Generally only the dense crowded auxiliary branches are properly removed. The rest of the auxiliary branches are not placed on the shelf, the branches are opened, the branches are given, and the summer branches are used to promote the flowers. After the results, according to the specific conditions Disposal, release, shrinkage and other timely processing.
3, pull branches open angle: pull branches open angle, according to the requirements of the tree, clear the backbone branches and auxiliary branches. Auxiliary branches should be pulled to the level or droop, the angle of the backbone branches should be smaller than the auxiliary branches. This will not only benefit the cultivation of the tree structure but also contribute to the ventilation and light transmission of the tree. Note, do not use the back of branches, and do not use buds outside, otherwise it will cause the back of branches to return to prosperity, is not conducive to slowing down, flowers, and the results.
4. Cultivation of fruiting branches: Results The fruiting branches are the basis for fruitful growth in the fruiting period. In the pruning process of saplings, the branches must be cultivated. Results There are two methods for culturing the shoots: one is to put the shrink first, and the other is to cut first and then put it back.
Second, apple fruit tree pruning: full fruit period apple tree tends to ease the growth of new shoots, tree growth and results in a relatively balanced state. At this time, if it is not properly managed, it will easily result in large and small annual results. The management should focus on subterranean soil and fertilizer. Based on this, pruning mainly solves the following three problems:
1, to improve the tree light: no light is not a result, a good tree structure is an effective way to solve the light, the specific approach is as follows: 1 clear layer: that is to clean up the interlayer, increase the spacing between the layers, cited side light into the lotus root. In the growing season, layers of layered trees generally need to reach 50-60 cm. As the young trees are trimmed with light shears and long branches, there are more auxiliary branches left, so they should be promptly cleaned up after entering the fruit period. Specific operations should pay attention to: First, to stage, batch processing, one can not handle too much, otherwise the tree returns to prosperity, the second is to deal with the method should be combined with the evacuation, do not blindly wipe out. 2 open skylight: that is, falling head happy. “Open the skylight, see the sun, and the twigs of the guilty are noisy”. Before heading for joy, we must prepare for falling. After the uppermost branch is basically fixed in angle and the thickness is greater than the center, the girdling of the falling part of the center stem above the main branch will cause the upper part to become Flower, wait for the result 2 to 3 years to fall again.
2. Cultivate and update the Zhuangzhi Zhuangzu group: Apple's result on the mother branch with 2 to 3 years old results in the best performance, and after 4 years old, the performance starts to decline. Therefore, when updating, pay attention to preserve and cultivate the result branches from 2 to 3 years. In addition, some debilitating branches and branches should be shrunk in time in order to rejuvenate their growth; for this reason, the cut-out site should leave buds on the branches. Each shove group is zoomed in and zoomed in its space, and the results are updated repeatedly to maintain the density of the shrubbery group and to maintain a strong result.
3, adjust the appropriate ratio of flowering branches: This period of the apple tree pruning should be fine, generally should be "three sets of branches" pruning; so that the normal golden bark or mean tree branch flower buds, bud ratio maintained 1:3, weak tree 1:4 Strong Tree 1:2. This proportion is not necessarily in place at the time of winter shearing, but it must be supplemented with summer shears. Author: Baoding Qingyuan Vocational Education Center, Hebei Province

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