First, the maturity of harvesting is different. Litchi's tolerance to Tibet is different. If the harvesting is too early, the fruit will not be fully developed and will affect the quality of the fruit. If the maturity is too high, the storage tolerance will be poor. For long-term storage or long-distance transportation, the appropriate harvesting maturity is 8 to 8.5 mature. The degree of maturity can be judged by the color of the inner and outer skins, and also by the sugar-acid ratio of the fruit. There are slight differences in the judgment criteria for different breeds. Taking Huaizhi as an example, its assessment criteria are: turning of the outer peel lobule to red, split sulcus to pale yellow, inner rind basically white, titratable acid about 0.22% to 0.24%, soluble solid about 17.5%~ 18%, sugar to acid ratio of about 70. The fruit whose endocarp has turned red indicates that it is too mature and it is not suitable for long-term storage and transportation. It should only be sold immediately. Harvesting should be conducted in the early morning on a sunny day. Avoid harvesting under the hot sun or rain or typhoon. Collect under the hot sun. The field temperature is high, the fruit temperature is difficult to reduce, and the peel is easily browned, and the quality is drastically reduced. Harvested on wind and rainy days, the fruit is easily rotted during storage and transportation. Litchi harvesting is generally harvested in clusters, and should be handled gently to minimize mechanical damage. Second, selection, points after the extremely post-selection, remove rotten fruit, fruit cracking, pests and diseases and brown fruit, choose no pests and diseases, no brown spots and normal growth of fruit for storage and transportation, for the export of litchi, but also remove the stems . Third, the cleaning and preservative treatment mainly adopts the lychee preservatives No. I and No. II produced by Huan Nong Big Fruit and Vegetable Postharvest Physiology Research Laboratory for post-harvest treatment, which has obvious effects on inhibiting browning and rot during storage and transportation of litchi. Firstly, use fresh-keeping agent I to clean the fruit, rinse with water, dry it, and dip the fruit with Litchi Preservative No. II for 1 minute. Allow it to dry and package it. Fourth, packaging According to different market requirements, packaging can be used cartons, gift boxes, lined with low-density polyethylene bags (thickness 0.03 ~ 0.04 mm) packaging, can hold 2.5 to 5 kg; also can use plastic boxes, lining low density Polyethylene bags, can hold 2.5 kg or 10 kg. Packages that enter the supermarket can be packaged in small trays and then enclosed in EVA drip-free wrap. If it needs to be stored and transported under normal temperature conditions, the fruits can be pre-cooled and then packed in plastic bags, and foam boxes can be used for packaging. It can play a role in insulation. V. Pre-cooled litchi harvesting is in midsummer, the temperature is high, the fruit's respiration is high, and the water evaporates quickly, making the fruit brown and metamorphic quickly after harvest. Therefore, the fruit should be precooled as soon as possible after harvest to eliminate the field heat of the fruit. The pre-cooling method may be a forced-air cooling pre-cooling, a vacuum pre-cooling, or an ice-water pre-cooling method. It requires packaging, pre-cooling, and storage in cold storage within 6 hours after harvesting. The more timely packaging, pre-cooling, and storage, the better the preservation effect. Sixth, storage and transport litchi storage temperature is 3 ~ 5 Â°C. Fruits stored below 2Â°C are susceptible to chilling, causing browning of the peel and affecting the storage effect. If the storage temperature is too high, the storage period is short. The conditions required for transportation are the same as those for cold storage. Refrigerated vehicles and refrigerated containers are best used for long-distance transportation. If there are no refrigerated boats and ships transported by ordinary trucks, the litchi can be pre-cooled first, transferred to a foam box before loading, and at the same time with foam board or batting and other materials around the carriage to keep warm, and add appropriate amount of ice, can also be carried out for 4 days About transportation. There is also a direct use of foam boxes and ice to transport litchi, but this approach is more risky. VII. Sales According to the above regulations, litchi can be kept fresh for more than 30 days, and the good fruit rate is over 90%. After being stored for sale on the market, the plastic bag is not opened after leaving the refrigerated condition, and the shelf life can be extended. If the foam box is used for insulation, the shelf life is longer. However, the longer the shelf life of litchi, the shorter the shelf life.
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