The recent investigation and analysis of the Wheat Experts Guiding Group of the Ministry of Agriculture believes that the current ratio of the first and second types of wheat seedlings is significantly higher than that of the previous year, and the overall quality of the seedlings is better. However, due to late planting of wheat sowed in Tengjiaokou and drought, the emergence of seedlings was late, the seedlings were small, and the seedlings were weak. The three types of seedlings accounted for a certain percentage. Therefore, we must understand the situation, seize the opportunity, and do a good job in winter wheat field management.
Experts pointed out that the main problems existing in current winter wheat are: first, grab the early sowing in some areas, the sowing rate is too large, the temperature continues to soar after sowing, and the area of â€‹â€‹Wangmiao is larger. Wang Miao is easy to consume nutrients, from weak to weak, such as poor control or high temperature, may be jointing before and after the Spring Festival, susceptible to frost damage. Second, there is less precipitation after wheat sowing, and soil moisture in some areas is insufficient.
According to the analysis of the meteorological department, the precipitation in most parts of southern Jiangnan in winter this year is higher than usual, and the rest of the country is less than most. The recent drought conditions are difficult to ease. Third, pests and diseases have already occurred. Due to the high temperature, stripe rust has been occurring in Shaanxi, Sichuan, Ningxia, Gansu and Henan provinces. In some areas, the density of aphids is higher, sheath blight and mildew occur, and wheat spiders are also found. In addition, due to the general increase in fertilizer prices this year and other factors, fertilizer input in some areas is relatively small, especially organic fertilizer input is insufficient, some wheat fields have deferred.
How to manage the winter wheat field? According to the expert steering group, the following measures should be focused on at present:
First, we must strengthen the management of three types of seedlings. The three types of seedlings should take advantage of the unfrozen pre-winter time to give priority to management and promote root growth. Grab loose soil in time and increase ground temperature. For late glutinous wheat fields with better bottom pods, generally do not pour winter water to avoid lowering the ground temperature; for late buckwheat with poor basal pods, sunny winter water should be selected, and insufficient base fertilizer can be applied to quantify fertilizer.
The second is to pour the overwinter water in time. The pouring of winter water is conducive to sinking the soil, ensuring that the wheat seedlings safely pass through the winter, which is beneficial to the storage of water in the wheat fields, providing good sensation for the wheat in the early spring of the following year, and striving for management initiative. Therefore, where water is poured, overwinter water should be poured in a timely manner. Huanghuaihai wheat area should be suitable for pouring winter water at the end of November and early December. For nitrogen- and nitrogen-phosphorus-fertilizer-free plots, or plots that lack seedlings, weak seedlings, or lack of fertilizer plots, appropriate amounts of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers must be applied in combination with winter water.
Third, we must do a good job before the winter management of Wang Miao. The current management of Wang Miao should be based on control. The first is suppression. Before being frozen, stone roller or mechanical repression can be used to control the growth of the ground and the occurrence of excessive tillers. The number of repressions depends on the condition of the seedlings. Generally, Wang Miao's wheat field can suppress 1 to 2 times. The second is to cut off the roots. For the excessively prosperous wheat fields, in addition to repression, deep-rooted cuttings can be carried out at a depth of about 10 cm when the total number of stems per acre reaches 600,000 or more in winter, and the soil must be compacted afterwards to prevent frost damage.
Fourth, it is necessary to draw a plan in due course to stop the grass and protect it. Before the winter ploughing, there are both requirements for protecting the grasshopper and lifting the weeds. Therefore, when wheat is exposed to rain, winter irrigation, or soil compaction due to other reasons, all kinds of wheat fields should be scratched in time to remove compaction and protect the roots and seedlings.
Fifth, we must strengthen the control of pests and weeds. At present, efforts should be made to prevent and treat diseases, pests, and weeds that mainly include stripe rust, powdery mildew, sheath blight, aphids, underground pests, and weeds. For wheat stripe rust, it is necessary to adhere to the strategy of â€œdiscovering one point and controlling oneâ€ to minimize the source of overwintering bacteria. Gansu, Sichuan and other places in the area of â€‹â€‹the bacteria source must carry out large-scale chemical prevention and control, control the source of bacteria, and reduce the pressure on other wheat areas; we must select efficient and safe herbicides for chemical weeding to reduce weeds; prepare poisonous soil or baits. Prevent and control underground pests to ensure that the entire seedlings are overwinter; and control Rhizoctonia solani to reach standard plots to reduce the number of diseases in the middle and later stages.
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