Beef farm construction
Mastering the three basic principles of cowshed plays a key role in your success
The basic principle of cowshed
First, the design principle.
The purpose of building a cowshed is to create a suitable living environment for cattle and ensure the health of cattle and the normal operation of production. Less feed, capital, energy and labor are needed to obtain more livestock products and higher economic benefits. To this end, the design of beef cattle should grasp the following principles:
1. Create a suitable environment. A suitable environment can give full play to the potential of cattle production and improve feed utilization. In general, 20% of the productivity of livestock depends on the species, 40-50% depends on the feed, 20-30% depends on the environment, unsuitable ambient temperature can reduce the productivity of livestock by 10-30%, in addition to feed the full price Feed, if there is no suitable environment, feed can not be converted into animal products to the maximum extent, thereby reducing feed utilization. It can be seen that when building a barn, it must meet the requirements of livestock on various environmental conditions, including temperature, humidity, ventilation, light, carbon dioxide in the air, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, to create a suitable environment for livestock.
2, in line with the requirements of the production process to ensure the smooth progress of production and implementation of animal husbandry and veterinary technical measures. The production process includes the composition and turnover of the herd, transportation of fodder, feeding, drinking water, excrement and so on. It also includes measures such as measurement, weighing, sperm extraction, insemination, control, and production care. The building of a cowshed must be combined with the production process of the site. Otherwise, it will cause inconvenience to the production and even make the production impossible.
3, strict health and epidemic prevention to prevent the spread of the disease. Epidemic diseases pose a threat to cattle farms and cause economic losses. By building a standardized cowshed to create a good environment for livestock, it will prevent and reduce the occurrence of epidemics. In addition, special attention should be paid to hygiene requirements when building livestock houses in order to facilitate the implementation of the veterinary system. It is necessary to reasonably conduct site planning and building layout according to the requirements of epidemic prevention, determine the orientation and spacing of livestock houses, set up disinfection facilities, and properly arrange the sewage treatment facilities.
4, to be economically reasonable and technically feasible. Under the premise of meeting the above three requirements, the construction of livestock houses should also minimize the engineering price and investment in facilities, in order to reduce production costs and accelerate capital turnover. Therefore, the construction of the barracks should make full use of the favorable conditions in the natural world (such as natural ventilation, natural lighting, etc.), draw materials from the ground as much as possible, adopt local construction habits, and appropriately reduce the area of â€‹â€‹ancillary rooms. The design plan of the livestock house must be realized through construction. Otherwise, the project is no better and the construction technology is not feasible. It can only be a design that is empty.
Categories of cowsheds
1. Cattle fattening cowshed
1 Types of huts: The tying type hens are often called conventional sheds. Each ox is fixed on the trough or railing with a chain rope or burdock to limit activities. Each cow has a fixed position. The slots and the cattle bed do not interfere with each other and are convenient for feeding and individual observation. They are suitable for current farming habits, feeding levels and herd quality, and are widely used. If it is possible to solve the problems of cowshed ventilation, lighting and sanitation, it is worthwhile to promote.
The cowsheds can be divided into four types: closed cow houses, semi-open cow houses, open cow houses and sheds from the perspective of environmental control. The enclosed cowshed has walls on all sides, doors and windows can be opened and closed, and the other side is a half-section wall; the sheds are no walls on all sides, and only one pillar supports the beams. The enclosed cowshed is conducive to winter insulation and is suitable for use in cold areas in the north. The other three types of cowshed are good for summer heatstroke protection and have a low cost, and are suitable for use in warm areas in the south. In the semi-open barn, when the winter is cold, the open part can be covered with a plastic film and closed. When the climate is warm, the plastic film can be stowed to achieve the purpose of summer ventilation and winter insulation, so that the cattle's microclimate is obtained. improve.
According to the size of the cowshed and the layout of the cattle bed, it can be divided into single row and double row. Single-line type: only one row of cattle bed, span is small, generally 5-6 meters, easy to build, well-ventilated, but large heat dissipation surface. Suitable for small cattle farms. Double-row type: There are two rows of cattle beds, divided into two units, spanning 10-12 meters, to meet the natural ventilation requirements. In the beef cattle breeding, the application of the head type is more, the feeding is convenient, and the mechanical operation is convenient. The disadvantage is that the excrement is inconvenient.
2 The basic construction requirements of the Oyster-style barn: If the number of breeding heads is 50 or more, it can be built into a single-row type, and 50 or more persons can be built into a double-row type. In the head-style type, there is a channel in the middle of the barn for the purpose of giving Feeding path, about 1.5-2 meters wide. On both sides are cattle beds, food troughs and clearing manure. On both sides of the feces with urination ditch, slightly inclined to the dark ditch, the slope of 1-5%, in order to facilitate drainage. Dark communicative warehouse storage tank outside. The storage tank is about 5 meters away from the cowshed. The pool volume is 0.3 cubic meters per adult cow and 0.1 cubic meters of calves. The cattle farm should be cement floor, which is convenient for washing and disinfection. The ground should be roughened to prevent the cattle from slipping. . The size of the cattle bed is 150-200 cm in length and 100-130 cm in width, and the slope of the cattle bed is 1-5%. A fixed cement feed trough is set in front of the cattle bed. The trough is round and is preferably made of grindstone with a smooth surface for cleaning and durability. The manger has a net width of 60-80 cm, a frontal height of 60-80 cm, and an inner height of 30-35 cm. An automatic drinking device is provided 0.5 m above the ground on the side of each cow's feeding trough. In addition, the front and back of each cow barn should be With a sports ground, adult cattle is 15-20 square meters for each head and Yak cattle is 5-10 square meters. The sports field sheds are required to be strong and smooth, with a good tube and a height of 150 cm. The ground of the sports ground is suitable for triads or sandy soil, and a certain slope must be maintained for drainage. When building a cowshed, the depth of the foundation should reach 80-130 cm and be higher than the ground. It must be grouted and a moisture barrier should be provided between the wall and the wall. The wall thickness is 24-38 cm, ie the 24th wall or the 37th wall. The grout is made by grouting and the wall skirt is to be wiped below 100 cm from the ground. The barn door should be durable, no threshold, width and height of 2-2.2 meters, south window specifications 100120 cm, the number should be more, the north window specifications 80100 cm, the number should be less or north and south off. The window height from the ground 100-120 In centimeters, the rear window is generally higher. Building requirements:
The building of the cowshed should be determined according to local temperature changes and the production and use of the cattle farm. The building of the cowshed is simple, locally based, economical and practical, but also meets the requirements of veterinary hygiene, scientific and reasonable, conditional, and can be built. Good quality, durable cow barn. The barn is good for sitting south or southeast. The cowshed must have a certain number and size of windows to ensure that the sun is well lit and air circulates. The roof has a certain thickness, good thermal insulation properties.
The selection of cattle farm sites must be carefully considered. Overall planning and long-term planning must be combined with agricultural and animal husbandry development plans, farmland basic construction plans, and the construction of residential buildings in the future, and must be adapted to the needs of the modern cattle-raising industry. The selected site should have room for development. The principle of site selection is as follows:
Cowshed terrain selection summary
1. Topography: Gaozao, leeward and sunny, with a groundwater level of 2 meters or less, with a gentle slope and a low height from north to south, and generally flat, must not be built at low or low tuyere to avoid drainage difficulties, flooding during flood season, and winter cold difficult.
2, terrain: open and neat, square, rectangular, avoid long or polygonal.
3. Water sources: There must be sufficient water sources that meet the sanitary requirements. It is convenient to use and ensure production, daily life, and drinking water for humans and animals. The water quality is good, non-toxic, ensuring the safety and health of people and livestock.
4. Soil quality: Soil sandy loam is the most ideal, sandy soil is more suitable, clay is the most uncomfortable, sandy loam soil is soft, compressive resistance and water permeability are strong, moisture absorption and thermal conductivity are small. Rainwater and urine are not easy to accumulate, and there is no induration after the rain, which is conducive to the cleanliness and hygienic drying of the barn and playground, and is conducive to preventing the occurrence of hoof disease and other diseases.
5. Climate: To take into account the local climate factors, such as the maximum temperature, humidity, annual rainfall, main wind direction, wind power, etc., in order to choose a favorable terrain.
6. Social assistance: It should be easy to prevent epidemics, 500 meters away from village settlements, down from a major traffic artery such as highways and railways, 500 meters away from chemical plants, livestock products processing plants, etc. 1500, convenient transportation and power supply, and surrounding feed resources In particular, roughage resources are abundant, and as far as possible, there is no need to avoid farms of the same size and avoid raw material competition. Meet the requirements of veterinary health, there is no source of infection around.
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