Banana planting conditions

Although bananas are a kind of pantropical fruit, they can be cultivated in the tropics and cultivated in the south subtropical areas. However, this does not mean that they are widely adaptable. In fact, bananas are very sensitive to climatic conditions and soil requirements. Temperature, in particular, often restricts the high quality and high yield of bananas, and should be noticed in production, especially in large-scale and intensive cultivation.

1. Temperature: Bananas have formed specific requirements for temperature under the acclimatization of long-term high temperature and humid weather conditions. Temperature has become an important ecological factor limiting the growth and development of bananas. Bananas can be grown in areas with a temperature of 15.5 to 35°C, and temperatures of 24 to 32°C are most suitable. If the banana grows for more than 24°C for a long period of time, the growth period of the banana can be shortened and bananas with high yield and quality can be obtained. In the banana producing areas of our country, the quality of the fruits produced in the banana growing areas in southern Hainan Province is the best. Mainly manifested in the long fruit, fruit body hypertrophy, ripening effect skin color bright yellow, shiny oil, good quality flavor. Although bananas enjoy high temperatures but temperatures above 35°C do not allow the growth of bananas, when the temperature is above 37°C, banana leaves and fruits can cause sunburn hazards.

The banana is very sensitive to low temperature frost. When the temperature is 10-12 °C, the plant growth is slow, and the leaves and fruit appear slight chilling injury; when the temperature drops to 5 °C, the leaves appear cold injury; when 2.5 °C, the leaves are seriously damaged; 0 to 1 The plants were frozen to death at °C. The chilling effects of bananas are mainly determined by the speed of cryogenic frost and the duration of cryogenic frost. If the temperature is drastically reduced or if the cold persists for a long period of time and the rain is mixed with rain, the banana damage is very serious. If the cold temperature is short, even a low temperature of -4°C can only freeze the dead banana leaves without causing the dead stems to rot and die. In addition, different organs of different banana varieties and different stages of banana growth have different responses to chilling. Bananas have poorer cold resistance than plantains and pink bananas. Young leaves and fruits are vulnerable; the buds that are not long and large are the hardiest, while the plants that are nearly buds or have buds are the most vulnerable; plants that are robust and The higher management level of the fruit garden is relatively lighter. The low temperature in winter severely restricts the development of banana production in South China. Therefore, when developing bananas in areas with low temperature and frost in winter, care should be taken to choose cold-tolerant or cold-tolerant varieties, select suitable ecological conditions, attach importance to improving the health of plants, and strengthen the cold-proof cultivation measures before the low temperature comes, to the affected banana plants and The banana garden should be treated in a timely manner.

2. Moisture: Bananas are large herbaceous fruit trees, with loose stems, succulent plants, high water content in various organs, strong transpiration of the leaves, weak water use capacity in the roots, weak moisture resistance in the shallow roots, resistance to drought, and therefore banana growth. The demand for water during the period is very large.

It is generally believed that the proper water content should always be maintained in the soil of the banana plantation. From the point of banana annual water requirement, the ideal annual rainfall is 1800 to 2500 mm and the rainfall should be evenly distributed. It is better to have 150 to 200 per month. The minimum amount of rainfall in millimetres should not be less than 100 millimetres. Rainfall in banana growing areas in South China generally meets the needs of bananas for water. However, the autumn drought and spring drought in the southern banana region will affect the growth of bananas. The impact of the yield on the variety has a great relationship. The loss of drought-tolerant banana and plantain is relatively greater than that of the pink banana and plantain. However, the loss of the dry banana is higher than that of the banana and plantain. Less production. The above explanation does not mean that the more water is more beneficial to bananas. In fact, because banana roots are fleshy roots, good air avoids waterlogging. For example, if the water content in the soil is too high, the voids in the soil will be occupied by water, and the banana roots will be stunted due to lack of oxygen, and even root rot will appear. phenomenon. In particular, when the planting time is too long, the death of the root system often results in the gradual death of the plant. According to observations by Li Fengnian in 1989 in Zhongshan, after 72 to 144 hours of immersion in the Haitian banana plantation in the Waifeng Wai, most of the plants in the plantation had yellowed leaves and the plants died.

From the above, it can be seen that the management of water in the south banana area is very important. During the rainy season, drainage should be promptly conducted to reduce the groundwater level of the plantation and to avoid the dangers of waterlogging and flooding. In drought or less rainy seasons, timely irrigation should be carried out to avoid the occurrence of water shortage during the vigorous growth season of bananas. Only in this way can the normal growth of bananas be guaranteed.

3. Wind: Wind damage threatens the development of bananas in South China. It is one of the two most important natural disasters with frost. Because the banana stems are thick, dry, crunchy, large and easy to fold, shallow and crisp roots, and long ear weights, they are vulnerable to strong winds and typhoons. When the wind speed exceeds 20 m/s, the banana leaves can be torn and the petiole can be broken, affecting the photosynthesis of bananas and susceptible to leaf spot; in severe cases, the banana plants will be shaken and the root groups will be damaged; if the banana plants shake when the flower buds differentiate, Excessively large will also result in reduced production. The strong typhoon has a greater impact, which can blow bananas, break the bananas, and even pull the entire plant uprooted. If the plants grow buds and blossom, the fruit development period, the loss is even more severe.

Most of the South China coke area is in the coastal zone, and the typhoon is frequent and mainly concentrated on the rapid growth and development of bananas. Every year from May to October is the season when typhoons often occur. The counties and cities of Guangdong in western Guangdong, the Pearl River Delta, and Lingshui, Sanya and Qiongshan in Hainan, Qinzhou, Fangcheng, and Hepu in Guangxi are all vulnerable to typhoons and should be paid great attention. However, the breeze can regulate the temperature and promote gas exchange, which is very suitable for the growth of bananas.

4. Soil: Bananas can be planted not only on flat land but also on hills, terraces and highlands. It can be seen that bananas can adapt to many types of soil. However, the banana root is an aerobic fleshy root, and the young root absorbs the weak penetrating power of the soil. In addition, the banana grows fast and has a large amount of growth. The demand for fertilizer and water is large, so care should be taken when building the garden. Choose a good soil. The soil suitable for banana growth and development should have good physical and chemical properties. The soil should be loose and breathable, with rich organic matter content and high content of mineral nutrient elements; the upper layer thickness should reach 60-80 cm. The groundwater level is less than 100 cm. Irrigation and irrigation is convenient; soil pH should be between 4.5 and 7.5, the optimum pH is 5.5 to 6.5, and banana plants with pH below 5.5 are susceptible to blight.

According to the experience of planting bananas in South China, the soil for planting bananas should be loose and fertile, with thick upper layers, abundant water, good drainage, and low-lying loamy soils and sandy loam soils, especially alluvial loam or humus loam soils; Shallow, the upper layer of 35 centimeters is gray and black soft sticky subsoil, or the place where rust water flows out is unfavorable to the cultivation of bananas. If it is to be planted, soil improvement is required; using hilly slopes or mountainous gardens, the upper layer is thick but the soil is thin, Low organic matter content, poor water and fertilizer retention, and soil acidity. Care should be taken to deepen the soil and increase organic fertilizers. Do a good job of preventing soil erosion, water retention and drought prevention. At the same time, we should also pay attention to choosing south or southeast to build gardens. If the planting area is open and ventilated or there is a natural water body, then it is more ideal.

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