Edible rose cultivation management

Roses like sunshine, cold, drought, but also more resistant. The soil is not strict, but grows well in fertile and well-drained neutral or slightly acidic sandy loam. Rose grows lushly and manages easily. In the spring, thin human and animal urine are poured around the roots, watering and drainage are taken care of in the summer, and fertilizers are applied around the roots in the fall. Breeding is mainly based on the ramets method, which can be carried out before the germination in March or after the fall of leaves in autumn. The rootstocks that can be used for buckling or grafting can be used for roses or roses. The survival rate of the cutting method is not high, but it is only used occasionally. Single rose can also be sown and propagated. It can be sowed in spring or autumn.

Good seedling selection method:

Among the rose seedlings, there are “big seedlings” listed in winter and “new seedlings” that are only available in spring. For beginners, if they are planted from big seedlings, they will not fail. Therefore, “big seedlings” are recommended for beginners. When buying large seedlings, make sure of the following:

1, to have more than 2-3 branches full of pencil thick branches.

2. The color of the branches should be slightly brown and shiny.

3, try to touch the branches, to feel solid.

4. Shoots and roots are not infected.

To avoid the following flower seedlings:

The seedlings are full of fine shoots, green seedlings without lustrous shoots, and the middle are not strong, and soft and soft seedlings are touched.

In addition, the roots of the flowers will be infected with diseases. It is important to carefully confirm whether the roots are tumorous and the labels are complete. It is also important to clearly indicate the species names.

Cultivation place:

Roses prefer a cool and well-lit environment. Every day at least 6 hours of sunshine is required to produce good-quality flowers. Its growth is moderately warm at 15-25°C. The temperature is too high and it is not suitable for the growth of roses. In addition, Ventilation is also very important, and a hot, humid and poorly ventilated environment can easily cause various diseases in rose plants, such as black spot and powdery mildew. At present, there are two kinds of cultivation sites: gardens and balconies. The garden is usually planted in a place with good sunshine. At least 2 hours is required for the whole plot to reach the sunny place; the drainage and well-ventilated place should be selected; and the leaves or compost should be mixed in before the transplant. Drying measures are generally taken for balconies; pave the curtains and do not put flower pots directly on the concrete; prevent drains from blocking or leaking water, but also consider living close to home; place them in places where morning sun time is 2-5 hours.

Soil:

Soils suitable for rose growth must have three major points: looseness, good ventilation, and good drainage. The potted soil can be prepared by using sandy loam, snake wood, and vermiculite, and the rose cultivated by open soil must be selected in a location where no water will accumulate, and the soil should be loosened before planting. For the garden planting, in order to improve the state of the garden soil at the time of transplantation, digging pits in some areas of the transplant to remove bad soils, and mixing the red jade stone with crumb structure, rotted leaf soil and dried cow dung at the digging place. In places where roses were previously planted, transplanting new roses may worsen the growth of roses. In this case, new soil should be replaced. The planting of pots involves the use of eucalyptus leaves and dry cattle manure in the red jade soil. The proportion of the mixed soil is as follows: 60% of ruby ​​soil, 20% of rot and 20% of dried cattle manure, if used. Roses used for cultivation are easy to use. It can also be used as it is. In order to further improve courage and drainage, the soil can be used in an optimum condition when water-retaining 搀 2 to 30% of jasperite is used.

Seedling transplantation:

Can be divided into transplants in gardens and transplants in planting boxes (pots)

The main point of transplant in the garden is: the flower roots are balanced and extend around. In addition, when transplanting, you must not add fertilizer to your soil. After transplanting, it should be fully watered. Before the roots are stabilized, the pillars should be erected to support the plants. Preparations include buckets, plastic gloves, leather gloves, pruning shears, pillars, string, name tags, small shovels, rot (or compost), and shovels. The main steps are as follows:

1. Remove the film that covers the root. Flower roots are protected with protective materials such as peat moss or peat.

2. Carefully and carefully remove the protective material and soil, and carefully confirm that the roots are free of tumors. Trim about 1/3 of the root.

3. Put the flower root in a bucket filled with water and allow the root to fully absorb water for 30 minutes - 1 hour, but be careful: Do not place it for more than 24 hours.

4. Dig out planting pits with a uniform diameter and depth of about 60 cm, mix the rot-leaf or compost into the soil, and then pour it back into the upper part of the soil that has just been dug up.

5, transplant seedlings. The point is: Place the seedlings in the center of the cave so that the roots of the flowers spread evenly around the roots, stretching the roots as far as possible. Slightly downward from the base to stabilize the roots.

6, then spread the covered roots on the soil. The soil covered by the transplanted seedlings can be used to lift the lower half of the soil.

7. Ditch the ditches used for watering around the seedlings (called ditches or basins). Dig a circle around the seedlings.

8, watering the ditch. Instead of adding water from one place, water is evenly sprinkled back and forth.

9. After transplanting, cut about 1/3 of the length of branches, cut off twigs, weak branches and dead branches from the bottom.

Transplantation box (flower pot) transplant points:

When transplanting the roses into the planting box, the spacing between the rose seedlings and the flower seedlings should be fully reserved. When transplanting the flower seedlings, the branches should not be overlapped. After transplanting, pour enough water 2 times. Preparations include: granular soil, culture soil, planting boxes, pelvic floor nets, shovels, watering cans, buckets, plastic gloves, leather gloves, pruning shears, pillars, string, name tag. The main steps are as follows:

1. About 2 flower seedlings are planted in a planting box about 60 cm wide. Consider using a planting box that extends the rose roots to a depth of 20 cm or more.

2. Place 3-4 cm deep granules at the bottom of the planting box where large particles of ruby ​​soil can be used, and commercially available pelvic floor stones can also be used.

3. Remove the seedlings from the net and unwrap the peat moss roots while spreading the roots. To confirm if the flower root is infected with the disease.

4. Remove the tape used for root grafting. Be sure to remove this tape.

5. Decide on the location of transplanting seedlings. While covering the seedlings with hands, cover the soil with a shovel.

6, because of the tight roots, so to make the flowers spread horizontally while transplanting seedlings.

7. After deciding the interval between the two flower seedlings, cover the soil and add the soil to avoid burying the joints.

8. Fully water the planting box, smooth out the mud surface, and fully water it again after about 1 hour.

9. Leave 2-3 good branches and trim the twigs from the bottom. Good branches should be trimmed 1/3.

10. The pillars with the extension of the branches are established and completed. Put about 2-3 days in the shade of improper wind. After the roots have survived, apply Hyponex and other fertilizers and move them to the sunny place.

Watering:

Roses sprouted from March to November and sprouted in succession. Its driving force is water and nutrients (fertilizer). In particular, water transports nutrients to plants while water accounts for most of the organism. Therefore, it is very important. The richer the roots that are the source of moisture supply, the better the rose grows. Therefore, it is important to have a large number of leaves on the ground. Potted roses can be watered once every two days in the initial stage of growth. Before and after flowering, the pots can be dried and then poured. Roses cultivated in open fields can be sprayed with water mist to reduce temperature during summer droughts, and watering in winter is also necessary.

It is generally believed that roses that are in hibernation do not evaporate from the leaves, so they do not need to be watered. However, the fact that winter is cold and the weather is cold, the moisture in the soil evaporates out of the soil beyond imagination, and the soil becomes quite dry, this situation is very common. Therefore, if it is a sunny day, please fully water it. The rose absorbs nutrients from the soil around the end of January and grows white roots. If the white root is weakened by insufficient water, it will have a bad influence on the germination of spring.

Full watering during the growing season beginning in the spring. When pruning in winter is completed and new buds are sprouted, the absorption of water is accelerated. Therefore, once the soil surface becomes dry, it should be fully watered. The key to watering is: "Whenever it becomes dry, it will be fully watered." Methods such as watering even if the soil is not dried, or pouring a small amount of water every day, often result in excess water, and the root does not need to be stretched due to water absorption. Instead, it becomes poor and weak, and when the situation is serious, it will cause root rot.

Control watering during rose blossoming. This is the secret to making good flowers. Because when the petals are spread out, if they are over-watered, the roses will absorb too much fertilizer nutrients and will not blossom well. If it is ordinary soil, even if the topsoil becomes dry, it can maintain sufficient moisture during flowering. . Potted roses also have to be watered. Once the surface of the potted earth becomes dry, it is watered until the bottom of the pot can flow out of water. To be carefully watered, pouring the water once does not allow the water to reach evenly everywhere, so it can be done in two separate runs. Watering as early as possible in summer and as early as possible, if the leaves are withered, watering should be done immediately.

Fertilizer application:

The rose is hi-fertilizer. Organic fertilizer should be added as the base fertilizer when it is newly planted. The use of oil hoe, bone meal or decomposed fertilizer can be used. The dosage is 1/4 to 1/5 of the soil. Afterwards, topdressing once every two months, weeding with fertilization, and loosing soil will make the roses grow better. In the winter where the rose is dormant, fertilizer is buried in clay. 20-30 cm from the base of the rose plant, dig around 20-40 cm deep pit. It does not matter if the root is broken. Add sufficient rot or leaf compost and mix well with the soil. Each rose is mixed with 500-700 g of fertilizer with a nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium ratio of about 1:3:1. Do not fix in a fertilization, but do not miss the uniform fertilization. In this case, there is no need to go for special fertilizers. In the summer, the fertilizer is applied according to half of the winter fertilizer. Because the rose is in a period of growth and development, do not dig as deep as the earth pit excavated in winter, but scattered on the surface of the soil, and fully mixed with the surrounding soil. If you dig deep pits, you may damage the roots that absorb water and nutrients, and pay attention.

When potting, do not mix fertilizers in the transplanted soil, but add compost. It may be a large particle fertilizer (commercially available) that is a mixture of oil dregs and bone meal. About 20 centimeters of potted plants are approximately 3 places. As far as possible away from the plants, the fertilizer is buried at a buried depth. When replacing, remove the old fertilizer and put it in a different place than before.

Breeding:

Rose breeding methods include sowing, grafting, pressing, ramets and cuttings. General family cultivation, with cuttings and ramets method is more convenient.

The cuttings should be carried out in the late autumn and early winter. The strong and full branches should be selected. The delicate branches, diseased branches and new shoots should not be used as cuttings. Each stage of the cuttings should have at least 3 - 4 leaves and the rest should be removed to reduce evapotranspiration. Put the cuttings in the sand bed, keep the temperature in a bright place, avoid direct sun exposure, and take root after about one and a half months. If rooting hormones can be used in combination, rooting rate can be increased and rooting time can be shortened. In the spring of the following year, the cutting seedlings can be moved into pots and pots, either in the 6th or 7th pots. The suitable planting distance for open cultivation of roses is 60cm for big rounds, 45cm for middle rounds, 25cm for small rounds, and 120cm for wild species.

Potted roses should be changed once every two years. The new pot is about 6-7cm larger than the old one. When the pot is changed, the old soil of 1/2-1/3 should be removed, and part of the roots that are entangled should be removed. Here are the rose buds:

1. After the flowering period, cut the leaves so that the teeth can be taken as scion.

2, tooth point cut method.

3. Cut a T-shaped connector on the rootstock, and then join the tooth points.

4, properly fixed with tape. Before the tooth spots begin to grow, the growing point of the rootstock should be removed.

Trim and cut: Rose is a perennial flower. During the long growth process, moderate pruning can make plants grow vigorously and maintain a beautiful plant shape. If you do not trim, any shoots grow old, the flowers will gradually decrease, and the plant shape is quite ugly. The rose cuts the flowering branches to 1/2 length. The incision must be flat and parallel to the axillary buds. The other dead branches, leggy branches, diseased branches, old branches and entangled branches should also be cut to keep It is well ventilated and maintains good plant shape. The correct clipping method for roses is: after the flowering period, the roses should be cut and trimmed to maintain a good plant shape and growth potential; the flowering branches should be cut to a length of 1/2, and the dead branches, diseased branches, and long branches must be cut. The entangled branches are cut off together; the moderately trimmed roses will grow new branches again, with buds on the new branches and flowering again. The general pruning principle is as follows:

1. Use a sharp clip to adjust the position of the trimmer to 0.6 cm above the bud, preferably 45 degrees.

2. The central part of the rose plant should be fully developed to maintain the bottle shape, which can promote air circulation and reduce the occurrence of diseases.

3, cut off sick branches.

4. Cut off any adventitious buds.

5. Cut out the weak leggy branches and restore the plant's original appearance.

6, pruning should be carried out in late winter or early spring, that is before the growth period.

7. After strong shearing, the number of rose flowers will be less, but the flowers will be huge, while the slight pruning will be more flowers and small flowers.

8. The safety limit of pruning is to cut until white appears in the center of the branches. Usually, the brown center indicates the dead branches.

Trimming during flowering: By May, the roses begin to bloom and pour water before flowering, but starting 10 days before flowering, if watering is controlled, full bloom of beautiful flowers will surely be available. If the rose is completely open, remove the flower early. If the flower is finished, it will bear fruit and the nutrients will be absorbed by the fruit, which will delay the flowering of the rose and cause the flower to be weak.

In addition, let the petals fall to the ground and leave it alone. It will mold and cause the rose to be sick, so remove the stalk before the petals fall.

For hybrids such as hybrid tea roses that open a flower on a stem, cut 1-2 leaves (5 leaves). Cut on top of the lower leaf, where you can grow new shoots and open the second flower. The multi-flowered variety cuts the stalk from the root connected to the adjacent bud.

Spring pruning:

Pruning in the spring is an operation performed in order to create a more beautiful flower. If you are stuck with a beautiful single-branch flower like a hybrid cultivar, cut it at a low position (strongly pruned). The single-branched flower is small, but you want to enjoy a multi-flowered series of flowers that can be cut before pruning. About 1/2 high (weak prune). The order of pruning is that the twigs are first cut from the bottom, and the old branches with weak branches and dry branches for more than 2 years are also cut off from the bottom. After removing the excess, the remaining branches are cut short. Roses of the four seasons blossoming can be pruned in spring in February, autumn pruning in the end of August and beginning of September, and pruning twice a year. Roses that bloom like a rose like a rose are only pruned in spring. Spring pruning. Because it is during the time when the rose is about to grow, there is no problem even if it is cut rather short. Climbing vine roses, British roses, and other species with a height of 2 meters or more do not require deliberate pruning. Just cut the front part of the shoot 10-20CM.

Autumn pruning

From spring to autumn, the branches of the roses grow densely, and the branches and leaves become crowded. If you leave it alone, the ventilation condition deteriorates and it is easy to cause diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to diligently trim. The method of trimming is to cut the twigs toward the inner side of the plant (called "inner branches") from the bottom, and if there is a withered part, it is also cut off. In addition, from the end of August to the beginning of September, autumn pruning of the four season flowering varieties can be carried out, and the branches can be cut into 2/3 heights before pruning. At about this height, good buds should be selected to match the direction of the buds to the buds. In the upper 5mm area, the branches are cut obliquely. The main point is to leave more leaves as much as possible. The leaves will be less and the flower shape will be worse, so be careful. The ground-type rose, or a species that is only open in the spring, only removes internal branches or dead branches and does not perform autumn pruning.

Summer method:

When the sun shines directly on the soil in summer, the temperature will rise a lot and the roses will become weak. Therefore, the use of bark or peat moss to cover the seedlings prevents the temperature of the soil from rising. Coverage, in addition to adjusting the temperature of the soil, also prevents the basin soil from drying out and prevents the soil from splashing in the event of rain or watering. In addition, in order not to reach the direct sunlight, you can use a net in the direction of direct sunlight from the afternoon, or set up a square grille to wind up the summer heat-resistant plants. When planting pots, pots were placed in the pots of the second circle to make double pots. In this way, the rose planting pots do not shine in direct sunlight, so the temperature of the pot soil can be prevented from rising. It is also important not to place the pots directly on the concrete. If the foliage is crowded, the ventilation system should be treated poorly, and it is easy to get bored and cause damage. Therefore, it is necessary to diligently arrange places where the foliage is crowded.

Wintering method:

In areas where winter temperatures do not fall below zero, it is not necessary to take special measures to prevent the cold. Insulation is achieved by covering them with bark dregs, peat moss, and peat moss. Be careful not to let the rose suffer frost. Planting pots or planting boxes should be moved to a place where no frost or snow can be found. On the balcony, a small greenhouse can be set up for insulation. However, in order to avoid the interior of the greenhouse, ventilate during the day.

Management at flowering stage: In order to make the potted roses to be large and large, the buds usually sprouted at young hours should be removed early, and the flowering seedlings should be grown for about six months before they bloom. For larger flowers, each bud only retains the main bud, and the buds are removed early. On the contrary, if there are many side buds, the flowers are more than one but each flower is smaller. During the flowering period, the fertilizer is applied once every 10 days to extend the flowering period.

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