The pomegranate has strong adaptability, drought resistance and heat resistance, thin salt-alkali resistance, easy management, high yield, fruit shape, beautiful fruit, sweet and delicious fruit, and broad market prospects. Pomegranate high yield cultivation must master the following key technologies:
1. Choose good breeds, cultivate strong seedlings and select excellent pomegranate varieties for breeding, nursery and garden establishment. Pomegranates usually use cutting propagation, generally from March to October, and preferably from June to July. Cuttings should be thick and full of one-year-old, short internodes, and shoots full of middle and upper branches. When the cuttings are cut, the cut at the bottom is slightly oblique, the upper part is 1 to 2 cm from the buds, and the length is 20 to 25 cm. The bed soil layer should be deep, loose, breathable, and have less saprophytic microorganisms. When the plug is inserted, the shallow trenches are opened, the branches are slightly inclined, and 2/3 of the soil is inserted into the soil to compact the surrounding soil, pour the clear water and keep it moist. When rooting, it is necessary to diligently apply and thinly apply top dressing and pay attention to drought protection and seedlings. About 1 year after the planting, when the seedlings are about 80 m high and the stem is thicker than 1 cm, the nursery will be planted.
2. Choose a garden site, and plant a pomegranate orchard scientifically to take shelter from the sunny slopes of the southern slope. Planting time is from spring to spring. When planting, first dig 1m square tree pit, and then apply 5,000 kg of earth fertilizer per acre and 30-35 kg of high-quality compound fertilizer to mix with the soil and mix well. The pressure is about 35 cm thick at the bottom of the ditch (pit). . Then fill in the mature soil 40 cm, planting seedlings. The spacing is 2 meters and 3 meters, and about 110 trees are planted in acres. The deep and fertile soil can be reduced to 90 to 100. After planting drenched root water.
3, multi-base fertilizer, less application of top dressing fertilizer is generally applied within 10 to 15 days after fruit picking, mainly farmyard manure. The first fruit tree is about 1000 kg per mu, and the adult tree is 2000 to 2500 kg. The top dressing is 10% to 15% of the base fertilizer and is applied in 3 separate batches. Nitrogen fertilizer is the main source of precipitating fertilizer. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are the main types of flower and fruit fertilizers. General adult tree germination fertilizer applies 5 kg urea or 10 kg ammonium bicarbonate per acre. Fertilizer, fruit fertilizer applied 5 to 8 kg per acre compound fertilizer. After the pomegranate germinates, it is necessary to timely cultivating and weeding to keep the orchards clean and loose. The young trees should also be interspersed with some peanuts, soybeans and other legumes to improve soil and increase income.
4, choose a good tree, do a good job pruning pomegranate pest resistance, strong growth, strong branches, with clustering characteristics, so pruning is extremely important. Through pruning and trimming, the tree is opened to form a happy tree with 2 to 3 main branches, and the branches are kept growing evenly to avoid strong and weak disparities, making the canopy structure sparse and dense and sparsely consistent. Pruning is generally performed before germination, and should not be cut off. Cut off the main object is the main branches of the sun on the branches and the crown of the erect branches, competition branches, leggy branches, transverse branches, withered branches, as well as the growth of the spring and summer and autumn seasons of excess branches and clusters of branches.
5. Thinning and thinning of fruit, the normal load of pomegranate normal flowering is cylindrical, accounting for about 10% of the total flower. Bell-shaped flowers are underdeveloped and incompetent flowers should be removed early. The principle is: keep more flowers, choose to leave two flowers, do not leave three flowers. The pomegranate is an alienated pollinated fruit tree. In order to increase the pollination rate, the bee should be placed at the flowering stage or artificial pollination. The method of pollination is: picking the bell-shaped flower that is blooming and dispersing the pollen on the blooming cylindrical flower. For the underdeveloped buds, deformed fruit, small fruit and dense young fruit to be eliminated as soon as possible to reduce nutrient consumption, so that the whole tree fruit distribution is reasonable, sparsely uniform, improve the yield and quality.
6, to strengthen management, prevention and control of pests Pomegranate Although the ability to resist diseases and insect pests is relatively strong, but dry rot, yellow thorn moth, aphids, spider mites, etc. occur from time to time. Prevention and control of yellow thorn moths should be combined with pruning, clear gardening, plowing, soil cultivation, fertilization, etc. to remove and destroy insects. The larvae hatched with 90% trichlorfon 1500 times or 2.5% dichlorvos 2000 times spray. Prevention of locusts, spider mites with 40% omethoate 20 times no 5-6 tissue paper around the trunk, and then wrapped in a good film. Before and after flowering, spray 0.6% to 0.7% lime-type Bordeaux liquid to prevent dry rot.
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