Key Techniques for Rape Cultivation in Mountainous Areas

Drought and water shortage are the main limiting factors for yield increase in mountainous rapeseeds. Therefore, how to adapt to favorable weather conditions, seek advantages and avoid disadvantages, and fully use agricultural technology to increase yield in drought-resistant cultivation are the key to increasing the yield of mountain rapeseed.

Timely planting of whole seedlings is the basis for yield increase in mountainous rapeseeds. It is timely to turn plows and rake finely after harvesting flue-cured tobacco or corn to loosen the soil, and it is beneficial to accumulate rainwater, reduce evaporation of soil moisture, and create a good growing environment for root growth. Combined with a ploughshare Mushi 1,000 kg of rotten farmyard fertilizer, it will be flat, fine and straight, with a ditch depth of 20 cm and a width of 30 cm. The sowing date is best for the Equinox to Frost Festival (from late September to October 20)

The rational close planting of dense plants is to strive for a more suitable group in the unit area. A canola has main stems and branches. The top of the main stem is called the main axis. Branches on the main stem are called the first branch. The branches that grow on the first branch are called the second branch. Due to the climatic characteristics of the winter and spring droughts in our province and the low level of cultivation, poor soil fertility and other reasons, individual fertility has not been fully exerted in actual production, and the first effective branching is limited to only 3-4. The main stem production accounts for 20% to 30% of the yield per plant. The effective branching yield accounted for 60% to 70% of the yield per plant, and the secondary branching yield accounted for 10% of the yield per plant, which was quite different from the reasonable yield ratio. Therefore, in the production, it should be closely planted so that the rapeseed groups and individuals can play a coordinated role. It is advisable that the fertile land should be thin and thin. The general mountain rapeseeds should be no less than 6000 to 7000 ponds per acre, with 3 plants per pond. Acres are controlled between 1.8 and 20,000.

Cultivate strong seedlings in the mountain oil menu productivity, the main stem fruit (yield) occupy a certain proportion, the main stem yield can be achieved through such measures as close planting. However, 70% to 80% of the yield comes from branches, and the branch yield is determined by the number of branches and the number of pods per branch, especially the number of first effective branches. As a result, it is extremely important to strengthen seedling management, nurture strong seedlings, and increase the number of effective branches for the first time so as to form an increased yield. Branches of rape are produced by axillary buds at each leaf node, but can the axillary buds form branches? Are branches effective? This is closely related to the cultivation conditions.

Good first-time branching of cultivation conditions, but less. The leaves of rapeseed grow differently because of their different parts. The shape of the leaves is not the same at the base of the main stem. The stems are rooted at the base of the main stem, the middle leaves are short-handled, and the upper ones are sessile leaves. In production, the first effective branching occurred mostly in the upper stalkless nodes and a few in the short stalked nodes. Therefore, increasing sessile leaves to gain more branches, these three leaves are a complementary relationship: the number of sessile leaves is affected by the short stalks, and the number of short stalks is affected by the long stalks. There are many long-handled leaves. The number of short-handled leaves is also small. There are more sessile leaves than short-handling leaves, and the chance of effective branching is increased for the first time. It can be seen that the long-handleed leaves form the basis for the first effective branching, and the long-handled leaves are formed at the seedling stage of rape. Therefore, the management of seedlings should be strengthened to use limited rainwater in time to conduct the thinning, thinning, weeding, top dressing, and pest control. The seedlings can grow well and grow vigorously and vigorously, which promotes the differentiation of the main stem leaf growth points to the maximum extent, increase the number of the first effective branches and total leaves, expand the area of ​​single leaves, and promote rapid differentiation of flower buds. Differentiation can effectively increase production.

Reasonable fertilization of rapeseed is a crop that requires more fertilizer, has strong fertilizer absorption capacity, requires large amounts of nitrogen and potassium, and is sensitive to phosphorus and boron fertilizers. In addition, the mountainous areas for planting are mostly lean red soil, and the soil fertility is insufficient. In view of the actual situation of drought and water shortage, it is advocated in the production to apply sufficient manure, increase seed fertilizer, and reapply Miaofei. The primary application of rapeseed in mountainous areas is to apply 1000 to 1500 kg of fertilizer per acre, 5 kg of urea to apply fertilizer, 15 to 20 kg of potassium sulfate, 30 to 40 kg of superphosphate, and use “rainy yellow” rain to grow fertilizer. Application of urea 10 ~ 15 kg, in the five leaves when the heart is applied. In view of the general lack of boron in red soil, borax 0.5 kg/mu can be used as a seed fertilizer or sprayed with 60 ml of new boron fertilizer at the initial flowering period to prevent “flowers but not actual disease” and increase seed setting rate of rapeseed.

Diseases and Insect Pests Diseases and pests that prevent rape often include viral diseases, white rust, downy mildew, black locust mites, yellow hop potassium, and cabbage worms. In recent years, clubroot disease has occurred in some areas. According to local conditions, accurate diagnosis, timely prevention and treatment.

Harvesting of rapeseed at a timely time to harvest prematurely, the grain is not full, and the weight of a thousand grains is low, which affects the yield and oil content, and late harvesting is greatly disrupted during collection and transportation. Timely harvest is an important guarantee for high yield and quality of rapeseed. The best rapeseed harvest was the yellow ripening period. During this period, the rapeseed showed main stems grayish or yellowish, and most of the leaves dried up. The main shaft has a bright yellow color. The surface of the glossy branch is nearly yellow, and the upper middle fruit is yellow-green. The whole plant and whole field fruit are 70% to 80% yellow, which is an ideal period for harvesting. When harvesting, it should be close to the base of the plant to cut low, which is good for seed ripening. The harvest should be carried out in the morning when the dew is not dry. After cutting, the plastic film is laid on the corner shovel and the rapeseed is stalked and stacked 4 to 5 days later. , drying, Yangjing, storage or sale can be.

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