The technical operation to increase the hatching rate of Gushi chickens should include three main links: hatching preparation, hatching operation, and split chicks.
Specific Requirements for Incubation Preparation Machines and Incubator Workshops for Incubator Plants: The incubation facility is located in a convenient location but 200 meters away from the highway. Incubation chamber structural design requirements (including sanitary requirements): Incubator room should be isolated from the outside environment, there are screens on the doors and windows, to prevent entry of mosquitoes and rats, etc.; insulation, moisturizing and ventilation requirements: good thermal insulation and moisture retention, there are special Ventilation holes or air holes; system requirements: the entrance should be equipped with disinfection equipment, the staff in and out of strict disinfection, non-workers shall not enter; lighting requirements: there are ceilings, wall lights, lighting lighting in line with the use of incubation.
Incubator maintenance and commissioning. After the incubation begins, the machine must be continuously operated. Therefore, the hatching machine must be carefully checked and corrected before hatching to check whether the components are normal. Clean and disinfect after inspection and then test run for 1 day. Confirm that there is no abnormality before officially entering the incubation.
Cleaning and disinfection of incubator equipment and other incubator equipment. One week prior to hatching, the incubator, hatcher, and hatching equipment such as egg trays and hatching trays should be cleaned. Then all prepared hatchery utensils should be placed in the hatchery and the doors and windows should be closed and formalin fumigated.
The source and freshness of the selected eggs for the eggs: The eggs should be derived from healthy, high-yielding flocks, and there has been no epidemic in the flock in recent years. Breeding males and females is appropriate. The young chickens aged from 30 to 50 months are the best. They do not need to lay eggs and the eggs are kept for no more than 1 week to ensure the highest fertility rate.
Eggs meet the breed's characteristics, shape and size suitable for hatching. Eggshell color and shape conform to Gushi chicken egg requirements, eggshell dense and uniform, surface non-stick feces, sludge and other dirt, no cracks, uniform size, 553 grams is appropriate, moderate thickness, no "sharp eggs", " Shatou egg."
Egg Storage and Disinfection Egg Storage: Although the storage time is short, it should also be kept in a special egg store. The egg store requires clean, dust-free, heat and ventilation, no moisture, no mosquitoes, no flies, no direct sunlight. Save about 15 Â°C temperature, humidity 65% â€‹â€‹-75%.
Egg transport: When using a special egg box for shipping, when no special egg box is used for the carton, the space between the egg and the egg, and between the layer and the layer is enriched with shredded paper or straw. The bulk of the packaging should be placed upwards. The transport vehicles should be clean and hygienic, ventilated, breathable, rain-proof, sun-protected and slow-moving.
Egg disinfection: Eggs must be sterilized once during storage and during hatching. Frequent formalin fumigation or benzalkonium disinfectants are used. When incubating, fumigate with 30 ml of formalin and 15 g of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes, then open the air outlet to vent and vent the formaldehyde gas, and ventilate for half an hour to close the damper.
Code wheel, pre-warm dial: the egg. Incubate the eggs that meet the standard, and the bulk heads will be coded upwards onto the egg trays. The code plate is carried out 12 hours before hatching. Once the code is good, the unsatisfactory eggs, such as dark lines and sand eggs, are again removed with the egg light.
Pre-heating: Before hatching, the egg tray should be moved to the incubation chamber according to the season and set at 22Â°C-25Â°C for 6-8 hours or 12-14 hours.
Incubation operation temperature adjustment: During the incubation process, "see fetal temperature," and timely adjust the incubation temperature according to the development of the embryo. Should pay attention to the changes in incubation temperature, observe the sensitivity of the adjustment instrument, generally no longer artificially adjusted after correction of the incubation temperature, but when the deviation should be given to the temperature of 0.2 Â°C -0.5 Â°C should be adjusted, the temperature of each adjustment should be small. The temperature is generally controlled at 37.8Â°C for 1-18 days; 36.8Â°C-37.2Â°C for 19-21 days. The temperature of the incubator was observed once every half hour and once every 2 hours. In particular, after shutting down and adjusting the temperature, it is necessary to observe carefully. If there is a temperature difference between the upper, lower, left, and right sides of the incubator, the transfer should be organized on a regular basis.
Humidity adjustment: Wet and dry bulb thermometers are placed inside the incubator to indicate the relative humidity inside the incubator. The thermometer water pipe should be filled with distilled water, gauze should be frequently cleaned and replaced, so as not to affect the evaporation of water and calculate the relative humidity accuracy. If there is no humidity control device, the humidity can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing the water tray, raising and lowering the water temperature and increasing or decreasing the wet cloth in the incubator. Coastal areas should be protected from excessive humidity, and most areas in the north should be protected from excessive humidity. The optimum relative humidity is 60%-65% for 1-18 days and 75% for 19-21 days. When the hatching requires a higher humidity, it is mainly conducive to the hatching of chicks. No humidifying facilities are commonly used to wet the embryos with warm water.
Ventilation: Ventilation allows the embryo to have sufficient oxygen to remove excess CO2 and cool down. Excessive ventilation will cool down, and CaCO3 in the eggshell will not turn into soft CaHC03 due to low CO2 concentration, making it difficult for chicks to break the shell and reduce the hatching rate. The incubator generally has a CO2 concentration of 0.4%-0.5%. Ventilation is generally performed on the first day after hatching, and gradually increases with the increase in gestational age from the second day. In summer, the temperature is high and the humidity is high. The heat in the machine is not easy to dissipate and the amount of ventilation should be increased. How to deal with the relationship between temperature, humidity and ventilation has an important impact on improving hatching rate. In general: the green light is always on, and the air volume is increased; the red light is always on, and the damper is slightly closed;
Turning eggs: The purpose of turning eggs is to make the eggs heated evenly, keeping the embryo moving and preventing adhesions. Generally turning eggs once every 2 hours, turning the egg angle â‰¥ 90, 14 days after the embryo has developed shape, with a certain degree of thermal regulation and activity capacity, should reduce the frequency of turning eggs, the embryo swallow protein and absorb nutrients have a certain role. Stop turning the egg after shifting.
Cool egg: After the embryo has hatched for 15 days, due to the increase of fat metabolism, the temperature in the egg rises sharply. In order to help the body to cool, cool eggs are needed. Method is: timely turn off the machine every day, open the door, the egg tray out of 2/3-1/2, place 30-60 minutes, depending on the egg temperature and the specific time, the egg temperature to 30 Â°C -33 Â°C, stop the cool egg. Cool eggs are usually 1-2 times a day.
Preserve eggs: Regular embryos are used during hatching to understand embryonic development. After the first 6 days of hatching, head photos were taken to check the development of chicken embryos. No eggs, dead dead eggs, dead embryonic eggs, and weak embryonic eggs were removed; 10-11 days were examined according to "closed"; 17-18 days. Check the closure.
Dropping plate: also known as egg transfer or transfer. After the last shot of the egg, the eggs of the hatcher's egg tray are removed from the dish. Do not turn the egg on the transfer tray and increase the humidity. 2-3 days after the transfer begins to hatch. The shift is specifically controlled when there is a 10% chicken embryo opening. After starting the machine, it was sterilized with 10 g of potassium permanganate and 20 ml of formalin for half an hour.
Separate chicken chicks Disinfection: When 30% younger, disinfect with 0.1% 100% killer spray.
Picking young chicks: When you hatch a batch, you must pick it out in a timely manner. It must not exceed 12 hours in the machine after being hatched. When you hatch, turn off the lights so as not to disturb the chicks and affect the picking. During the hatching period, chicks with empty shells and fluff are detected 2-4 times according to hatching conditions. At the same time, the embryonic eggs that have been â€œmouthedâ€ are collected and placed on the upper layer, and the temperature of the hatcher is increased by 1Â° C. and the humidity is increased by 10% to promote embryonic emergence of weak embryos. General hatching can focus on hatching, without the need for midwifery, sticking to the eggshell on the hair, spray the warm water to make the hair wet and separate from the eggshell. The standard operating hatch rate can reach 97%-98.5%.
Male and female identification and identification of males and females: identification of males and females after hatching, and removal of debilitated chicks. Male and female identification of commonly used trans-analysis method, mainly by observing the presence of reproductive processes to distinguish male and female, there are male genital processes.
Young chicks grouping: In principle, according to young chicks and weak chicks, marketers sometimes identify groups by sex. In general, the rate of incubating and hatching reached 95.5%. The standards for young chicks are: clean fluff, well-absorbed umbilicus, dry and covered with villi, flat belly, stable and strong, responsive to light and sound, loud and vocal, well-proportioned figure, not dry or bloated, appearing to be â€œwater spiritâ€ . It should be noted that the young must have the characteristics of Gushi chicken breeds.
Immunization and immunization with water: It is possible to immunize after 6 hours from the hatching. Generally, the vaccine can be made with the speed-producible + liquid nitrogen MD vaccine, which can increase the survival rate.
Boiling water: also known as â€œtidal waterâ€, generally uses warm water â€œboiling waterâ€ consistent with Sherwin. Boiling water is usually added 0.01% potassium permanganate, from the disinfection of drinking water and cleaning gastrointestinal effects, can promote the body's absorption of egg yolk, excretion of meconium and ensure appetite. Weak chicks "boiling water" by adding 5% of grapes or sucrose can improve the survival rate.
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